BIOREFINING


  • Bio-refining is based on the idea of a green circuit where no resources go to waste  
  • Bio-refining is a new economical method of heating with biomass
  • There are many other unexplored opportunities beyond heating which we will outline
  • The method is economical and not dependent on government support

After a mechanical shredding in the mixer, the biomass is heated whilst in motion to 190C over two hours. This refining process separates the liquid from the dry matter. The resulting heat treated dry matter is bacteria free with a moisture content of approximately 6-10%. The dry matter has the same characteristics as fuel pellets and can now be used as fuel directly. Overproduction of dry matter from refining can be compressed into pellets / briquettes for later use or sale. The fluid from the process is used in pressure less gas form for heating via a condenser and is turned back to a liquid. The heat transfer at 190C is through a thermal oil in an open system and is therefore pressure less. The plant is designed as a dynamic process (heating unit) and a continuous process (refining unit).

1. Biomass                   A. Liquid

2. Shredding                B. Pellets    

3. Evaporation             C. Ash

4. Steam                      D. Smoke

5. Condensation          E. Heat

6. Dry matter

7. Pressing

8. Combustion

We have tested various types of biomass in our plant.
We have primarily worked with bedding from horses based on shavings and pellets.
We plan the same intensive work with bedding from chickens,
wet wood chips and and bedding from horses based on straw.
I the bedding from horses we have made 8 test and measured
liquid content from 49% - 57% in fresh horse manure.
A horse produces app. 35kg - 40kg waste a day.
Which represents app. 3,5kW - 4,0kW.
Fresh horse manure (shavings) contains:

 



Horse manure has no value as fertilizer for agriculture use due to the low containment of nitrogen. 

To get a uniform dosage and a uniform refining,
we have chosen to homogenize the biomass.
We do this by mechanical shredding for 10 minutes in the mixer.
Depending on the nature of the biomass it may be necessary to mix/ shred for longer.

During constant motion at 190C the liquid is evaporated from the bedding in the refining tube.
The steam is sucked out at the top of the dryer and the dry matter false into the buffer tank.
The steam then passes through the condenser and in turned back into liquid.
App. 65% of the energy used for the refining processes is recovered through the condenser. 

The dry biomass has a combustion value of 4,5kW/ kg. marginally lower than straw with a typical combustion value of 4,8kW/kg.

The wastewater from the refining/
condensation processes has a lower value
than typical household wastewater.
The wastewater should therefore be able to go into the normal sewer system. 

The bio ash from the process meets the standards for ashes
and can be brought back into the circuit as agricultural fertilizer.
The value of phosphor and potassium means that
it is possible to save on artificial fertilizer
and only add nitrogen as a supplement to the bio ashes. 
The ash content is relatively high at app 8 - 10%
We have measured phosphor value at app. 15g/ kg and potassium at app. 52g/kg. 

 


BENEFITS

  • No disposal of horse manure
  • No nutrient evaporation
  • No contamination
  • No purchase of fuel
  • Production of pellets/ briquettes to sell
  • No impact on local environment and neighbours